Congratulations! You’ve just educated yourself on the most common advanced topics in blockchain that you’ll hear about. By understanding these concepts, you have a firmer grasp on the fundamental tradeoffs and latest research on the blockchain than most industry “experts”! Better yet, next time you hear your colleagues around the water cooler talking about state channels, the Lightning Network and Byzantine fault tolerance, not only will you know what they’re talking about but you might be able to teach them a thing or two!
This construction is achieved by composing smart contracts on the main blockchain using fraud proofs whereby state transitions can be enforced on a parent blockchain. We compose blockchains into a tree hierarchy, and treat each as an individual branch blockchain with enforced blockchain history and MapReducable computation committed into merkle proofs. By framing one’s ledger entry into a child blockchain which is enforced by the parent chain, one can enable incredible scale with minimized trust (presuming root blockchain availability and correctness).
However, the Lightning Network would, again, require a change to the existing Bitcoin protocol. (Though again it would be a “soft fork,” i.e. the existing blockchain would remain fully valid.) And/or — you guessed it — a Lightning sidechain. What’s more, one of the changes it requires, the elimination of transaction malleability, is handled by the Segregated Witness work in Sidechain Elements. (correction: all of of the changes required are incorporated into Elements Alpha — it’s Lightning-ready out of the box.)
¡Por supuesto! para todo ello existen muchas propuestas con soluciones muy interesantes, pero hacer cambios experimentales sobre el código de Bitcoin es arriesgado y, que la mayoría de nodos se adapten, lleva tiempo. Bitcoin es grande y esto hace que la toma de decisiones sea lenta al reflexionarse los cambios de manera muy profunda. Esta toma de decisiones lenta e incapacidad del protocolo de ampliar con modulos las capacidades de Bitcoin es el principal motivo por el que empezaron a salir otras criptomendas centradas en nichos y casos de usos concretos. Era más sencillo clonarse el código abierto de Bitcoin y adaptartlo que esperar a que en Bitcoin se decidiese aceptar su funcionalidad. Este es, principalmente, el motivo por el cual hay cientos de criptomonedas y se necesita un wallet por cada una de ellas, siendo un absoluto caos a veces, ya que todas están desconectadas entre ellas.
Let’s switch gears quickly before we get back to talking about trust mechanisms. We’ll define what a “smart contract” is. The first blockchain that was popularized is obviously the Bitcoin blockchain. But the functionality of Bitcoin is very limited. All it can do is record transaction information. It’s only useful to keep track of the fact that Alice sent Bob 1 Bitcoin.
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2. Ardor’s Blockchain as a service platform for business: Ardor uses the Proof of Stake consensus mechanism. Ardor calls its sidechains ‘childchains’, and they are tightly integrated into the main chain. Security is enhanced because all transactions are processed and secured by parent chain forgers. Most transactions are pushed down to the childchain level, as the parent mainchain retains minimal features. Global entities such as assets and currencies across chains can be accessed through childchains.
“The only reason the banks have gotten to the point of thinking about permissioned ledger is because they finally reached the stage of bargaining, third stage in five stages of grief, for industry they’re about to lose. They start with denial, and the basis of denial is, well, this thing isn’t gonna work, it’s gonna die any day soon, and it doesn’t. And then they say, it’s just silly money and it doesn’t have any value, until it does; and no one else is gonna play with it, except they are; serious investors won’t put money into this, except they did; and it still refuses to die. We go from denial to bargaining. Somewhere in between might be anger, some depression, and eventually they’re going to reach acceptance, but it’s gonna take a long time.
This comparison might make you think that private blockchains are more reasonable to use as they are faster, cheaper, and protect the privacy of their members. However, in certain cases, transparency is more crucial than the speed of transaction approval. So, every company interested in moving their processes to a blockchain evaluates the needs and goals and only then selects a particular type of distributed ledger.
Segregated Witnesses — The current Bitcoin transaction signature algorithm is complicated and flawed, leading to a problem known as transaction malleability. Segregated witnesses would eliminate that, improving the efficiency of much Bitcoin software considerably … and making much more significant innovations such as the Lightning Network (see below) possible.
Are there any legitimate uses for it? Possibly, if you have an institution that can’t establish legal relationship between them. I am not sure where can we find this use case in the wild; most corporations and institutions usually thrive on the legal documents they have signed in order to keep each other from lying/hiding/deleting/changing data. Since each institution can keep the local copy of all transactions within their own database, the question becomes a matter of dispute resolution, as opposed to a lack of trust.
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An important distinction to be made about sidechains that needs to be understood is that sidechains themselves help to fuel innovation through experimentation. Rather than providing scalability directly, they allow for trivial experimentation on sidechains with various scalability mechanisms. Using sidechains, one can avoid the problems of initial distribution, market volatility, and barriers to entry when experimenting with altcoins due to the inherent derivation of their scarcity and supply from Bitcoin. That being said, each sidechain is independent and flexible to tool around with various features.
Our Proof of Work tutorial talks about it in depth, but the best explanation might come from Satoshi Nakamoto himself. If the camps above start receiving messages that don’t agree, they rely on executing a Proof of Work. The Proof of Work is sufficiently complicated and requires significant computing power. Once one camp solves the Proof of Work, it broadcasts the results to the other camps. This message is now accepted in a chain of messages and the competing messages are dropped by the other camps.
Always there is a balance in nature, even in blockchains. If you want to have extra features, you need to make a sacrifice from your current features. For example to have high speed and volume; you need to give some from your security & immutability by doing consensus with smaller groups or you need to use different methods in consensus like POS / PBFT. (Proof of Stake / Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance)
The ShipChain platform unifies shipment tracking on the Ethereum blockchain, using a sidechain to track individual encrypted geographic waypoints across each smart contract. With this system, the meaning of each cryptographic waypoint is only accessible for interpretation by the parties involved in the shipment itself. This gives shippers more visibility across their supply chain, and allows carriers to communicate with ease.
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